IPR in IoT


Intellectual Property Rights and Internet of Things
Pranjal Srivastava
Spu18cs06@policeuniversity.ac.in
Sardar Patel University of Police, Security and Criminal Justice

Introduction
With the emerging era towards the policy oriented strategies, SLA’s, Documentation of each and every things including codes, images, songs, gestures, working units etc.

We are heading towards the things that are able to talk with each other through a medium on the human commands, we know such things as a Internet of things, Human Internet of things or Industrial Internet of things depending upon the usage.

Large ventures like amazon, ali-baba, Google, Microsoft already on it way to capture the whole market size with their products to simplify the human living with effortless lifestyle.

But with all these there is one things that is crawling in background to save their rights and existence of their in the market i.e. Intellectual property rights.

Here in this article, I am trying to cover the whole landscape of the IoT towards IPR.
Keywords : Growth of IoT, Working Streams of IoT, Market Outlook, Alliances or just to be stable.

  • Internet of Things (IoT) is one of the paradigm that is moving ahead with storming speed and striking the market so hard to break all the records over the appliances that make the lifestyle of the human easy to be on.
  • Not only home, from industries, transportation, communication etc. are also not been untouched with this paradigm.
  • “Stay connected” is the primary key behind this concept, but with the secure environment it converts into “Connect everything which is unconnected till now”.
  • The name patent derives from the Latin words “litterea patentes” which literally translates means open letters.
    a. These “letters” entitled the holder to certain rights, titles, or privileges.
    b. During the 14th and 15th century the main purpose of these privileges was mostly to foster technology transfer from foreign countries by giving the importer the right to exclusive exploitation of the technology for a certain period of time.
    c. This, of course, is quite contradictory to today’s purpose of patent protection (David, 1993).
    d. The first formal patent law was enacted by the Venetian Senate in 1474.
  • Not going deep into the history of the IPR’s and its evolution worldwide, that can be seen into multiple documents available on the internet I directly want to initiate the views over the topic mentioned earlier.
  • Growth of IoT can be imagined with the statistics of the mobile phone subscriptions and its potential growth until 2020.
    From 2008 to 2013 number of mobile phone subscription was nearby 10-15 billion. And after 2015 it gradually increased from 15-18 million to 20 million and after 2016 it ranges in
    between 20 billion to 45 billion and still going on due to these Things that are to be governed and controlled by humans for their commercial and private works.
  • As per the above data, we can evolve that in the upcoming years every existing mobile phoe users connect 8-10 devices to the internet.
    With all these devices when connectivity get established, traditional approach of the communication definitely is not going to work for that , therefore technologies like WiMax and Zigbee will take place.
    Now, what matter for every individual and organization and its business is based on any modification, creation and alteration of the standard, then thety must understand the legal risks and implications in depth.
  • But for IoT the game is potentially somewhat different. Since IoT is stretching outside the conventional “Consumer – Phone – Operator” value chain. Most industries are trying to create loyalty to their brand and present their offering to the consumer when IoT is introduced.
  • The power companies would like to be the hub in your home and they already have infrastructures that reach all the way out to the consumer although sometimes with a high-power copper cable.
  • The car manufacturers like Tesla, Audi and BMW are trying to build an infrastructure into your home so that cars can get new software and applications during the night along with the charging, etc.
  • Google, for example, is number 3 when it comes to patents related to self-driving cars – only surpassed by Toyota and Daimler. The home surveillance/home alarm companies often have a hub in the home where all cameras and door sensors are connected.
  • These systems are typical run on wireless and/or wired networks and outside of the conventional mobile market. Another category of players include the media companies.
  • Here we see players doing home game consoles such as Nintendo, Sony and Microsoft as well as cable TV or satellite players like Comcast, Boxer, Viasat, etc.
  • Also traditional devices manufacturers like B&O and Sonos (home sound) are all trying to utilize their assets for a future battle around Internet of Things.
  • Several of the companies entering from the automotive, software or media area are now starting to file IPRs in the IoT domain. So, a number of very powerful players may target the same market and there is an obvious risk of heavy battles and double counting.
  • It becomes of vital importance that you start to assess the potential IPR threats, but also that you pro-actively start to drive an own IPR strategy in order to have the freedom to act in a later stage
  • An overview of the eco-system related to IoT.
    The top section outlines some of the influential standardizations entities.
  • The second layer depicts actors (service providers) that have showed interest in the area among others. This part just indicates that players from various areas have a focus in the area of IoT.
  • The third layer, called main initiatives, depicts some of the alliances or initiatives that are trying to harmonize a “standard” around IoT.
  • The forth layer shows some of the radio based technologies that are or about to be used for IoT.
    The alliances formed by giants such as Apple, Google, Qualcomm, Intel and IBM are fighting to attract members to “their standard”, while some service providers are building their own structures.
  • It is rather likely that there will be a consolidation over time, but more and more players are approaching the scene and today it is very hard to see who will be the winner long term.

Conclusion
Several of the alliances claim that everything is open and based on open standards etc.

But that doesn´t mean that all IPs are free and accessible to all who would like to enter this market.

Different companies will enter the IoT business with very different approaches and business objectives.

Some will use well standardized components and technologies,

while others will try to modify specific parts in order to create uniqueness in technology and/or product offering.

Since the technologies related to IoT are handled by a variety of standardizations forum and/or industry initiatives,

It becomes of the outmost importance to understand both the standardizations’ legal framework and the patent/IPR structure of the industry.

  • References :
    Intellectual property rights, innovation and technology transfer: a survey
    Breitwieser Anja and Foster Neil
    University of Vienna, Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies
  • January 2012
    Online at https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/36094/
    MPRA Paper No. 36094, posted 20. January 2012 19:23 UTC
     IOT and Industry 4.0: The Industrial New Revolution
    Conference Paper · September 2017
  • https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319881057
     Connecting with the Industrial Internet of Things(IIoT)
    ©2013 Moor Insights & Strategy.
     Security and Privacy Challenges in Industrial Internet of Things
    Ahmad-Reza Sadeghi, Christian Wachsmann; Michael Waidner

4.0 and Internet of things.

The world is undergoing constant transformations that somehow change the trajectory and history of humanity.

The introduction of the Internet of Things and Services into the manufacturing environment is ushering in a fourth industrial revolution: Industry 4.0. The objective was to analyze the novelty of the theme Industry 4.0 related to IOT through a systematic review in the Web of knowledge base.

The results showed the institutions that research the theme, the researchers’ network of relationships, etc. articles in congresses and magazines.

Research has shown that the industry theme 4.0 and IOT are relatively new, only items that address the two themes.
Where 82 were printed in Annals of Congress for news and only 27 were published in periodicals, other features of the theme are recent. The largest production of articles in the year 2016 is the main language and English and the country with the largest number of publications in Germany. An emerging country is China with International Conference on Management and Information Systems the largest number of productions and the authors who produced the most.

I conclude that the theme is important, but the scientific production is still small, appearing now the articles in congresses and magazines.